Jacob Hop

Jacob Hop
Jacob hop
Engraving of Jacob Hop
after Theodoor Netscher
Born31 July 1654
Thesaurier Generaal UP1699
Died27 Ocotber 1725

1 Jacob Hop's Family and Early Career

1.1 The Hop family

The Hops were one of the Amsterdam 'Regenten' families. Jacob was born to Cornelis Hop (1620-1704) and Anthonia Cloeck (1627-1666). Cornelis Hop was the first of the merchant family Hop that made a living out of his studies. He became a lawyer in Amsterdam, and soon had one of the busiest offices. Gillis Valkenier made that Cornelis became adjunct-pensionary of Amsterdam in 1666 for 4,000 guilders a year. From 1667 till 1675 Cornelis was pensionary, and the mightiest servant of Amsterdam. He was of the faction of Valckenier, Van Beuningen and others, that was on the rise since 1667 and regularly opposed the De Wit faction. In 1672 his faction came in favor, but he was not prepared to bow to William III. In 1675 he was appointed to the Hoge Raad, probably to remove him from the States of Holland.

1.2 Study and career as layer

Jacob Hop was born on 31 July 1654 on the country residence Auspiciis et Telis in Velsen. His grandfather Pieter Cloek lived there. Jacob studied law at the University of Leiden under Beukelman. Jacob next acted as a lawyer for a few years. Here Jacob met Hieronymus van Bevernink. In 1678 Jacob Hop was part of the mission of Van Beverningh that brought about the peace of Nijmegen.

2 Pensionary of Amsterdam

2.1 Appointment as pensionary

In 1680 Jacob was appointed as pensionary of Amsterdam. The pensionary represented Amsterdam in the States of Holland. He is not to be confused with the Grand Pensionary, who presided over the States of Holland and was a member of the States General. As pensionary of Amsterdam Jacob took part in the resistance of Amsterdam against William III's policy.

2.2 Correpondence with the French ambassador

In 1683 there was a conspicuous conflict about levying 16,000 men. When France invaded the Spanish Netherlands in 1683, William III wanted to augment the army with 16,000 men. Most of the States of Holland approved this measure, but Amsterdam stated that the financial situation did not allow the state to enter into a new war. Amsterdam then ordered Jacob Hop and Gerrit Hooft to talk to the French ambassador. A letter by d'Avaux containing a detailed report of these talks was intercepted by William III. It was read in the States of Holland in 1684, but did not contain names. This probably saved the necks of some people.

2.3 Joins William III's circle

The relations between William III and Amsterdam became better from 1685. The relation between Jacob and William III also improved. Jacob soon became part of the circle of William III that was directing the policy to resist the French aggression. In 1687 Jacob stopped as pensionary, and became a honorary pensionary.

3 Diplomatic missions

3.1 MIssion to Berlin

From June 1687 till September 1688 Jacob Hop was in Berlin as Envoy Extraordinary. He was to make use of the services that the Elector of Brandenburg had offered to resolve the differences between the United Provinces and Denmark on account of trade and shipping, Jacob would also need to resolve some issues that had arise in 1684 between the Dutch West Indies Company (WIC) and the Brandenburg traders on the coast of Ghana. During his stay Jacob Hop represented the States General as accepting to be godfather of Frederick William. In turn the elector became godfather to Jacob's child Frederick, that died early. A more covert object of the mission might have been to get the Prussians, or at least some of its army, on board for the invasion of England (as replacement for the Dutch troops that crossed to England).

3.2 Mission to Vienna

Jacob Hop next went to Vienna in September 1688. His mission was to mediate a peace between Austria and the Ottoman empire, but the mission could hardly be seen separate from the invasion of England that took plave a few months after his arrival. Concluding a treaty of mutual defense against France between the emperor and the States General was another target. After negotiations Hop went back to The Hague, and on 12 May 1689 the treaty was signed as the 'Groot Verbond'. Hop returned to The Hague in August 1689, where he reported about his missions to Berlin and Vienna.

3.3 Mission to London

The States General, and William III, now King of England, wanted to enlarge their coalition. In November 1689 Hop arrived in England. He was received by William III on 20 December 1689. Hop next went on several missions to England. In July 1690 Jacob Hop was present in the Battle of the Boyne.

3.4 Mission to Denmark

In 1693 Jacob Hop was sent to Denmark and Braunschweig-L√ľneburg in order to prevent the King of Denmark from attacking the Duke of Holstein. In 1694 Hop was again sent to Denmark.

4 Abilities and Career

According to Churchill Hop was depicted as proud, haughty, but also dedicated, patriottic, eloquent, a good writer and adapt in European politics, and to have been an irreconcilable enemy of the Bourbons.

Hop made a fine career, highlights of which are him being pensionary of Amsterdam and Thesaurier General of the union, the latter his function during the war. The Thesaurier General was the dignitary that actually spend the money of the union, and as such a powerful man. He was also active in diplomatic functions, and had a big influence on foreign policy/subsidy treaties.


5 Sources

Jacob Hop has an entry in the NNBW a collection of biographies.

An early Biography of Jacob Hop is in Levensbeschryving van eenige voornaame meest Nederlandsche mannen en vrouwen Amsterdam, Harlingen 1779.