|1692 Delaval to Cadiz|
1 Delaval wants to go to to Cadiz
1.1 Bring in the goods
By the end of 1691 a lot of merchandise had accumulated in Cadiz. Plans to protect the Spanish Silver fleet to Cadiz by sending a fleet to Cadiz under Callenburg had been aborted (cf. Silver Fleet). Therefore attention shifted to sending a fleet that would secure the transport of merchandise from Cadiz to the north.
The operation would be combined with sending new merchant fleets to the south (Portugal and Spain), and to the Dutch East Indies.
1.2 Delaval commands
Ralph Delaval very much wanted to command an expedition to the Mediterranean. The command of the winter squadron was perhaps more prestigious, because it was larger. An expedition to the Mediterranean however brought in more personal advantage. It's not that hard to imagine that in a situation with very strong commercial interests, the commander of a convoy could generate all kinds of income from more or less corrupt behavior.
The least corrupt behavior would probably consist of accepting all kinds of gifts that merchants would hand out to their protectors. If you command a merchant ship transporting a cargo worth millions, it makes sense to hand out a few thousands here and there. Consider what this means if you protect a fleet of a few hundred merchants. But it could get worse: think about just stowing some merchandise from merchant X in the warship. Or perhaps wait a few more days for merchant Y to have his ship ready. (There are multiple instances of governments trying to prevent such delays) Note that in this respect there is no reason to assume that Delaval behaved differently from other commanders. In his words to the secretary of state the Earl of Nottingham:
'My request to your lordship is that you will move the queen I may have the command and go to that voyage, for hitherto I have had the fatigue of being at sea every winter whilst Shovell got ten thousand pounds and Elmour (Aylmer) had the Straits voyage, Mr Killegrew had a regiment and Sir John Ashby made a commissioner of the navy. My Lord, I say not this that I repine at the favor they have had, yet I think without vanity my services have been equal to theirs and may be pardoned if I expect the like favor...' (Finch p. 272)
The story of Delaval's expedition to Cadiz seems hardly relevant, because nothing spectacular happened. However, the relevance of this page and investigation is not in some kind of battle, but in what went well for the alliance. The alliance was sending merchant fleets to Spain, Portugal and further on, with most of the ships getting to their destination, and most of them returning from their destination.
2 The Dutch fleet to the West, South and East
|The Dutch Outbound fleet December 1691|
|Adm. de Ruyter||Jan Payn||The Straits|
|Koning van Polen||Jan Pyns||The Straits|
|Asia||Joost Claesz. Jong||Scandrona|
|St Paulus||Paulus Dwijn||The Straits|
|Steene Sluis van Danzig||Adriaen Voshol||The Straits||Still in Texel 18 Jan.|
|Madonna de Bon Successo||Jan Baptista de Marcenaro||The Straits|
|Vogel Phoenix||Jan Vogel||The Straits|
|Agatha||Dirk Seyp||Cadiz and Spain|
|Maria||Jan Eylander||Cadiz and Spain|
|Maria||Adriaen Gouwenaer||Cadiz and Spain|
|Wapen van Sevilien||Jan Laurensz.||Cadiz and Spain|
|Barbara||Albert Schellinger||Cadiz and Spain|
|St Joseph||Roelof Jansz.||Cadiz and Spain|
|Stad Sevilien||Ime Pietersz.||Cadiz and Spain|
|General Vrede||Cornelis Aker||Cadiz and Spain|
|Agatha||Willem Jansz. Vermeule||Cadiz and Spain|
|St. Jeronimo||Jan Vinck||Cadiz and Spain|
|Koning David||Claes Evertsz.||Cadiz and Spain|
|Juff. Geertruyd||Egbert Aker||Cadiz and Spain|
|Madonna del Rosario||Gio. Andrea Meirelo||Cadiz and Spain|
|Gr. Hert van Toscane||Leendert Salders||Cadiz and Spain|
|Koning van Polen||Fransisco Vos||Cadiz and Spain|
|De 4 Molenaars||Jesse Mansveld||Cadiz and Spain|
|Post van Cadiz||Cornelis de Jager||Cadiz and Spain||Arr. Cadiz 7 January 1692|
|Konig Karel||Hendrick Knees||Cadiz and Spain|
|Herculus||Cornelis Gerritsz. de Graef||Cadiz and Spain|
|Constantia||Jacob Hoeck||Cadiz and Spain|
|Prins Frederick||Dirck Heertjes||Cadiz and Spain|
|Prins van Polen||Augustijn Boonen||Cadiz and Spain|
|NS de Lazaretto||Joseph Gonzales||Lisbon||Portuguese|
|?||Manuel de Miranda||Lisbon||Portuguese|
|?||Joseph Coelho Fragoza||Lisbon||Portuguese|
|Ships to Setubal||unspecified|
|Ships to Lisbon||unspecified|
|The Dutch Outbound fleet December 1691: to the colonies|
|Ilpendam||Michiel de Vries||East Indies||700t|
|Reijgersdaal||Jan Gerlofsz.||East Indies||818t|
|Isselt||Jan Kleinrens||East Indies||785t Not IJssel|
|Galjoot 't Hoen||IJsbrand Heemskerk||East Indies||70t|
|Geertruyd||Arent Gysen||West Indies|
|Vergulde Eendracht||Dirck Lofrijs||West Indies|
|Samson||Alof Wolfs||West Indies|
|Vrijheid||Hans Bandamo||West Indies|
|Gekroonde Haring||West Indies||A Buys|
|Alexander de Grote||Cornelis Cornelisz.||Suriname|
|Juffrouw Maria||Bastiaan Reyne||Suriname|
|Jagertje (AC 29/12/91)||Jacob Visscher||Dutch Guyana|
2.1 Ships from Texel
On 25 or 26 December a big convoy to: The East and West Indies, Biscay, Portugal, Cadiz etc. attempted to sail. About 70-80 ships left Texel escorted by Swaen and Douwe Harkesz (others have Tol 1)), and to Biscay: Broeder, Bontemantel and Erasmus. There is a list in OHC 29 December 1691. Many other ships did not succeed in sailing out. A later list probably contains many of the ships to Portugal AC 1 January 1692
The ice at sea had prevented 31 Kaeg-ships (flat-bottom ships) with break bulk cargo from reaching the fleet. These returned to Amsterdam, Medemblik, Hoorn and elsewhere. As a result many ships did not have all their cargo and men.
2.2 Ships left behind in Texel
A sudden lull in the wind made that about a hundred ships remained in Texel. Most of the large ships to Cadiz, two to Suriname, the West Indies and Biscay. As well as the escorts of Bassen (Sneek), Teengs (Groenwijf) and Eylander (unknown) AC 1 January 1692
2.3 Ships from the Meuse
The Witte Leeuw of Captain Hollard with some merchants including the Port a Port was thought to have sailed from Goeree on 24 December, and would probably collect the ships that had been forced into Plymouth AC 27 December 1691. Hallard probably had the East Indies ship Princeland (710t) for Delft with him AC 29 December 1691. The ships that had been forced into Plymouth were those of the previous Rotterdam convoy under Forman, which had been scattered by bad weather.
It became clear later on, that Hollard had not sailed. On 14 January Hollard, with the William of Jean Nead destined to Livorno, and other ships sailed from the Meuse. He was still expected to collect the Meuse ships that were in Plymouth AC 17 January 1692 The Dutch warships and 14 merchants that set sail from the Downs on 12/22 January LG 14 January 1692
2.4 Ships begin to arrive in England
|The Dutch Outbound fleet December 1691: to Biscay|
|Koning van Denemarken||Gerrit Rapier||Bilbao|
|Anna Maria||Cornelis Adr. van der Sluys||Bilbao|
|St Anthony||Joseph Sinklaer||Bilbao|
|Stad Amsterdam||Roos Jansz.||Bilbao|
|San Francisco||Cornelis Nebbes||Bilbao|
|Dorp Besoye||Andries Robbertsz.||San Sebastian|
|Wakende Leeuw||Dirck Slinckman||San Sebastian|
|Cobus||Huybert Thijsz.||San Sebastian|
|St. Pieter||Jan Vos||San Sebastian|
On 30 December 1691 the first of the ships that had left Texel on the 27th arrived near Wight. On the 31st Braeckel, the commander of the fleet of 3 warships and 80 merchants decided to put into St Helens in order to await the other ships. Of the three escorts Swaen and Bontemantel put to sea again in order to await the other merchants OHC 10 January 1692 (date on scan) AC 10 January 1692.
2.5 The convoys to the Indies continue to Plymouth
The ships to the West- and East Indies did not stop, but continued their journey. On 28 December 30 sail under escort of three warships passed Falmouth AC 15 January 1692. Headwinds then pushed these ships back into Plymouth on 3 January 1692. Skippers Jan Garlosz. (Reigersdaal), Michiel de Vries (Ilpendam), Jan Cleynhensz (Isselt), Isbrand van Heesmkerk ('t Hoen) and for the West Indies: Arend Cornelisz., Jochem Lange, Pieter Visser, Diedlof Wolf and others.
Meanwhile in Plymouth: On 28 December 1691 the York, Dover, Success, Centurion, Chester, Milford and Portsmouth were in Plymouth together with two Dutch warships OHC 8 January 1692. On 30 December the Centurion, Chester, Milford and Portsmouth sailed from Plymouth to Ireland, to escort troop transports from there to Flanders OHC 10 January 1692. On 4 January the York, Dover and Success were left together with the Dutch Setubal ships and their escort OHC 15 January 1692.
2.6 The convoy readies to sail
On 4 January the Convoy to Cadiz under Delaval and Evertsz was reported ready to sail in Portsmouth. The Dutch convoys recently arrived to St Helens from Texel would join it AC 10 January 1692. On 7 January the ships from Texel were still in Portsmouth, ready to sail with 6 warships under SbN Evertsz. OHC 19 January 1692
On 8 January the Dutch East- and West-Indies ships were still in Plymouth. Three English warships were also there, and ready to join the fleet to Spain AC 19 January 1692
3 10 January: Delaval prepares to sail
3.1 Delaval attempts to sail
Delaval first went to Portsmouth to gather his squadron to Cadiz. On 10 January he hoisted his flag in Portsmouth, and sailed down to St Helens AC 19 January 1692 SbN Geleyn Evertsz. with 6 warships and the Dutch merchants to Cadiz, Portugal and Biscay, had sailed down to St Helens on 9 January.
On 10 January Delaval and his fleet set sail from Portsmouth to the west AC 22 January 1692, but the wind changing he soon anchored. After the whole convoy with 13 warships had been under sail on the 11th, it was forced back by contrary winds AC 22 January 1692. On the 14th the fleet sailed again, accompanied by the outbound merchants and the Dutch Setubal fleet LG 4 January 1691/92. On the 15th a South West wind forced many ships into Torbay AC 24 January 1692. The York, Dover and Success and two burners as well as most merchants were reported in Plymouth on the 14th, and attempting to sail from there to the west on the same day OHC 24 January 1692. Some Dutch merchants said the fleet had entered Torbay on the 16th OHC 5 February 1692.
On 7/17 January Delaval arrived in Plymouth with 'a squadron of English and Dutch Men of War and about 60 outward bound Dutch merchants. On 8/18 January the fleet sailed out again accompanied by some English merchant ships, but they were forced back by headwinds on the same day, and were still in Plymouth on 10/20 January LG 11 January 1691/92 OHC 31 January 1692. One hoped that the ships that had remained in Wight had reached him. The English Biscay fleet with two warships, was expected to join the Dutch. On 22 January Delaval again sailed from Plymouth, but had to turn back again because the ships from Torbay did not come out OHC 31 January 1692.
3.2 Ships that had remained behind in Texel
On 17 and 18 January some ships to Spain, Portugal and Biscay, that had remained behind in Texel sailed west with the warships of Bassen (Sneeck), Teengs(Groenwijf), Crajesteyn(Wulpenburg) and Erasmus (Jager) AC 22 January 1692.
3.3 Delaval sails to Cadiz
On 23 January Delaval on the York sailed with the squadrons of English and Dutch warships, and 250 merchants to Cadiz. This included the last ships from Texel OHC 9 February 1692 LG 14 January 1691/92. On 14/24 January Delaval was joined by the ships from Torbay. The James of London commander John Matthews; Zant frigate Cap. Darby and the Vineyard of Fowey were in Falmouth waiting to go the Streights with Delaval LG 18 January 1691/92.
3.4 English Bilbao and Cadiz fleet left behind
The English Bilbao fleet were only a little too late: On the 24th a fleet of 14 merchants and their convoy to Bilbao entered Plymouth AC 9 February 1692 LG 18 January 1691/92. This was a pity because it meant the Dutch Bilbao fleet sailed alone to Bilbao. On 19/29 January the ships to Bilbao were reported still in Plymouth LG 21 January 1691/92.
On 24 January / 3 February 1692 the Monk, Saphire, Pearl and Chatham sailed from Plymouth to Bilbao with about 18 merchants LG 25 January 1691/92. This Bilbao fleet was forced back into Plymouth in the evening, but it sailed again the next day LG 28 January 1691/92. On 24 February / 5 March 1692 the Saphire and Chatham arrived back in Plymouth from Blibao, where they had left the Pearl frigate. The Monk and Success and some merchants continued to the east LG 28 February 1691/92
The English ships to Cadiz would also arrive too late to join Delaval AC 09 February 1692.
4 The Anglo Dutch fleet reaches Cadiz
4.1 Delaval's Convoy to Cadiz
- The Charles Galley was specifically built
- for warfare in the Mediterranean. Study
- the picture to see the holes for the oars.
- Picture by Willem van de Velde
|mentioned as arriving with Delaval & Evertsz in Cadiz on 3 Feb March 1692|
|Vrede||50||Roelof Swaen||Arrived 3 February|
|Sneeck||36||Jan van Bassen||Arrived 4 February|
|Amsterdam||64||Cornelis van der Zaen|
|Ter Goes||54||Marten Boon|
|Noorderkwartier||72||Jacob Jansen de Jong|
|5 Gebroeders Burner||Jan Simonse|
|Charles Galley||32||180||Joseph Waters||Cf. Cape Ortegal|
|AC Lists dozens|
|*Admiraliteitscolleges XI Evertsen, inv. nr. 27, 2 January 1692.|
On 5 feb 1692 about 20 warships and a lot of merchants under Delaval and Evertsz OHC 13 March 1692 arrived in Cadiz.
4.2 The Meuse convoy arrives in Lisbon
On 31 January the convoy of Captain Hollard and with him the ships from Texel and Plymouth arrived in Lisbon. About 30 English ships arrived. AC 13 March 1692.
4.3 Setubal Fleet
The fleet under Teengs and Crajesteyn arrived to Setubal at about the same time that Hollard arrived in Lisbon. Teengs died during the trip. Crajesteyn sailed from Setubal to Lisbon. There is a list of ships arriving in Setubal AC 13 March 1692.
5 Back to England
5.1 Dutch convoy from Portugal
Before Delaval was ready to leave, the Groenwijf and Wulpenburg that had sailed with him, were ready to leave Portugal again. On 19 Feb 1692 the 4 Dutch warships: Forman on the Wapen van Rotterdam, l'Amoureux on the Sterrenburg(20), Crajesteyn on the Wulpenburg, and Lt. of Teengs on the Groenwijf(36) were ready to leave Lisbon with 80 merchants AC 25 March 1692. Forman and Lamoureux had escorted an earlier unlucky convoy to Portugal and Spain, and many ships of other convoys were also ready to sail home. On 5 March these finally sailed from Lisbon OHC 25 March 1692
5.2 Delaval's Convoy to England
|mentioned as returned with Delaval & Evertsz on 31 March 1692|
|Ter Goes||54||Martin Boon|
|Amsterdam||64||Cornelis van der Zaen||In all probability this is the 'other'|
|Beschermer||Willem van der Zaen jr.|
|Keurvorst van Beyeren||Symon Willemsz||Came to Cadiz with Taelman|
|Nieuw Livorno||44||Cornelis Swermer||Came to Cadiz with Van der Saen|
|Keizer Adolf||30||Leendert Rayn||Came to Cadiz with Van der Saen|
|Diamant||Gerrit van Leeuwen||Came to Cadiz with Van der Saen|
|Juffr. Hester||Christiaan van Leeuwen||Came to Cadiz with Van der Saen|
|Koning David||Michiel Dirksz Roos||Came to Cadiz with Van der Saen|
|Juffr. Maria||48||Joost Jillesz van den Brande||In Cadiz from Livorno 27 August 1691|
|St. Rochus||Cornelis van Beveren||In Cadiz from Livorno 27 August 1691|
|Koning David||Jan Hartman||Cf. above|
|Hollandia||Gerbrand van de Velde||Came to Cadiz from Hamburg 28 August|
|Herderin||Jan van der Velde||Came to Cadiz from Hamburg 28 August|
|Maria||Jacob Adriaansz Turkes||Prob. came to Cadiz from Hamburg 28 August|
|Juffr. Abigael||Jan Goclet||Came to Cadiz from Amsterdam 5 July|
|Post van Cadiz||Cornelis de Jager||Had sailed ahead|
|*Commander of this squadron|
On 2 March 1692 this fleet sailed from Cadiz with 9 English Warships, 2 burners and 27 merchants, and 8 Dutch warships, a burner and 22 merchants. Taelman and Van der Saen's fleets had joined this fleet OHC 8 April 1692. As well as many ships from other nations and the Hamburg convoy of Gaspar Taems that was only destined to Lisbon.
On 21 March 1692 the return fleet under Delaval with 18 Dutch and English warships and about 60 merchant ships from Cadiz was seen near Falmouth1 April 1692 On 15/25 March SbN Evertsz with 8 Dutch warships and 3 English Frigates as well as about 40 English and Dutch merchant ships arrived at St Helens. On the 17/27 March they planned to continue to the east. Delaval continued straight to the Downs with 5 English warships, two burners and some merchants LG 17 March 1691/92
5.3 From England to the United Provinces
On 22 March 1692 the Dutch convoy from Portugal arrived before the Meuse with Forman and Lamoureux's warships. The Rotterdam part had 30-36 ships, amongst them the Zeven Provinciën of Frans Wiltschut. Of the 24 ships to Texel 14-15 ships came to Texel on 23 March with Groenwijf and Wulpenburg. Others continued to the Baltic AC 25 March 1692 OHC 25 March 1692
On 1 April 1692 word reached Amsterdam that the convoy from Cadiz that had sailed with Delaval had arrived before the coast on 31 March (cf. the table). From the warships those of Van der Saan and Taalman were mentioned as coming in, the others as staying out. The other Dutch warships under Evertsz. were those of RA Evertsz, Decker, Wassenaer, Jacob Jong, Martin Boon and another. It is most probable that after coming in Van der Zaen changed from his ship the Beschermer, to the Castricum. The obvious explanation for this change is that he had commanded the Beschermer since at least Feb 1691, and that it had to be careened.
6 Results & Analysis
The alliance had again brought a very considerable convoy to the south.
Looking at Delaval's voyage to Cadiz one can remark that nothing much happened. The relevance of the expedition shows when we compare it to others like it.
- The 1689-1690 convoy that also brought the Spanish Bride (cf. to la Coruna);
- The 1690-1691 convoy under Aylmer, that returned with the Smyrna fleet (cf. Smyrna fleet).
- The 1691-1692 convoy under Delaval (this page).
- The 1692-1693 convoy under George Rooke, which led to the battle of Lagos.
This story has for the most part been made by using the newspapers of the time. OHC, AC and LG are short for Oprechte Haerlemse Courant, Amsterdamsche Courant and London Gazette.
Finch refers to the correspondence of Daniel Finch, second earl of Nottingham during his first tenure of the office of secretary of state.
|1) One thought ('so gelooft wert') under Tol OHC 27 December 1691, but as I did not find Tol later on, but did find Swaen. I went for the version that had Swaen and Harkesz. Swaen and Van Bassen later turn up in Cadiz. Broeder, Bontemantel and Erasmusz turn up in Biscay.|