Lauder's regiment of the Scots Brigade
|John Kirckpatrick 1639-1684|
|Barthold Balfour 1684-1689|
|George Lauder 9 Oct 1689 - 17xx|
Origins of Lauder's regiment
Scottish troops had been serving in the Netherlands for quite some time before the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch war. They become traceable as regiments from the winter of 1674-1675 when all British units were re-organized and became part of an Anglo-Dutch brigade of 3 English and 3 Scottish regiments. Two of these; the later Lauder and Murray already existed at that time. The first was at the time commanded by Colonel Kirckpatrick.
Kirckpatrick's regiment during the Franco-Dutch War
In May 1672 Mr. Kirckpatrick was appointed as Major-General by the States General1. At the start of the Franco-Dutch War Kirkcpatrick's regiment was probably in garrison in Maastricht. In December 1672 it was sent to the minor siege of Castle Valkenburg2. On 6 June 1673 Kirckpatrick's regiment was locked up on the defensive in the famous siege of Maastricht. When the garrison marched out after the capitulation of 30 June 1673 a list of its casualties was published. Kirckpatrick's regiment had lost: Lieutenant J. Hacquet, of the Major's company; Hillensbergh (Hillsborough?), commander of Andla's company; Croystet of Croystet's company; a sergeant of Major Wijl's company. Among the wounded was 'Levenstont' commander of the lt-colonel's company3. It seems that Kirckpatrick later became governor of 's Hertogenbosch.
In early September 1674 Kirckpatrick's regiment arrived in Rabenhaupt's army, which was besieging Grave4. On 28 September it repulsed a French counter-attack with some losses5. In 1676 the regiment Kirckpatrick was in the failed siege of Maastricht. In the 11 April 1677 Battle of Cassel the Kirckpatrick regiment lost lieutenant-colonel Everwijn and captains Blom, Pyl and Morgnault. Major Lauder was wounded and taken prisoner and captain Cassel wounded. With the 1678 Battle of Saint Denis Kirckpatrick's regiment ended the Franco-Dutch War. It lost a captain, a sergeant-major and two ensigns; Lieutenant-colonel Lauder, the major and three captains were wounded6. In 1684 Barthold Balfour became colonel of the regiment
Balfour's regiment during Monmouth's rebellion
On account of Monmouth's rebellion James II asked the States General to send over the English and Scottish regiments in their service. Balfour's regiment and the two other Sots arrived first at Gravesend on 30 June 1685. The Scots were designated to serve in Scotland, but the rebellion there ended before they arrived in England, and so they marched to London. On 3 July they were reviewed at Blackheath and on the 4th they marched west. They arrived to late for the Battle of Sedgemoor and thus returned to the United Provinces without having to fight.
The Balfour / Lauder regiment during the Nine Years War
The regiment commanded by Barthold Balfour (Balfort) crossed to England in 1688. Here it transferred from the Dutch to the English establishment. In July 1689 a small army under Mackay marched from Perth in order to subdue the highlands. It consisted of the Dutch-Scottish regiments of Mackay, Balfour and Ramsay; the English Hastings (13 F) and the new and incomplete Scottish regiments of Leven (25 F) and Kenmore. Furthermore the horse of Annandale and Belhaven were present. Two more regiments of horse and four troops of dragoons came too late for the 27 July 1689 battle of Killiecrankie.
At the battle of Killiecrankie Balfour's regiment was on the extreme left. Shortly before his lieutenant-colonel George Lauder had been sent off to an advanced position with 200 men. During the battle both were abandoned by their men. Balfour was killed, but Lauder survived7. From that time forward the regiment was designated as Lauder's. Lauder's official apointmenr as colonel came before or on 9 October 16898. In the spring of 1690 Ferguson was major of Lauder's regiment. With 600 chosen men he sailed from Greenock to the western islands in three frigates. These then commenced the construction of Fort William. In July 1690 Lauder's regiment was in Perth9. Next the whole force under Mackay marched to Fort William and shortly afterwards defeated the remaining Scottish rebels.
In January 1691 the Lauder regiment was mentioned as one of the regiments King William III wanted to field in 1691. It's remarkable that at the time the Scottish regiments of the Anglo-Dutch brigade still stood apart by being at the end of the list and by having companies of 100 men each, and 12 companies in stead of 1310. In 1691 Lauder's continued in Scotland.
In August 1692 Lauder's regiment formed part of the Anglo-Dutch brigade in the Battle of Steenkerque. Till the present British historians have entertained stories about the brigade and other English troops being mismanaged or even sacrificed by the Dutch in this battle. The list of losses at Steenkerque11 does tell a different story. What did happen was that Lieutenant-general Mackay was killed early in the battle and that the troops he commanded (most probably the Anglo-Dutch brigade) did not come up in time to support the initial attack by two other brigades. In the heavy fighting that ensued the regiment lost its colonel Lauder wounded12 and prisoner13.
In January 1693 Colonel Lauder's regiment was on the second to last place of the list of troops to be maintained by King William III in 1693. What had changed was that its composition was now like the other regiments of 13 companies and 780 men, and were no longer with the foreign troops14. In July 1693 Lauder's regiment was in the battle of Neerwinden15. In 1695 Lauder's regiment was in the force that covered the Siege of Namur.
Lauder's regiment transferred back to the Dutch army
In October 1696 the ' Lawder' regiment is still on the list of troops to be maintained by William III. Somewhere in late 1697 or in 1698 the regiment was then returned to the United Provinces. In 1698 Lauder's regiment was transferred back to the army of the United Provinces. In 1699 it was designated to garrison Bergen op Zoom16.
Lauder's regiment of Foot in the War of the Spanish Succession
On 21 December 1702 Lauder's regiment was in Flanders17. In March 1704 George Lauder was promoted to Major-General. In July 1704 Lauder's was in Ouwerkerk's army18.
|1) Le Mercure Hollandois for 1672 page 94, has Kirckpatrick's appointment in May 1672.|
|2) Le Mercure Hollandois 1673 for 1672 page 556 has Les François voulant d'abord faire quelque resistance, on y envoya encore le Regiment de Kirckpatrick,.. for Kirckpatrick's participation in the Siege of castle Valkenburg.|
|3) Le Mercure Hollandois for 1674 page 111, has Kirckpatrick's losses at the siege of Maastricht.|
|4) Hollandsche Mercurius for 1674 page 178:en quam toen oock noch 't regiment van den Heere Kirckpatrick, en eenige andere vaendels (makende 't samen wel 2800 man uyt) tot onderftant in het Leger.|
|5) Le Mercure Hollandois for 1674 page 178, has Kirckpatrick's regiment suffering losses at Grave.|
|6) Le Mercure Hollandois for 1678 has the losses for the English and Scots regiments at Saint-Denis|
|7) A Short relation, as far as I can remember, of what passed before, in, and after the late defeat in Athole, of a part of their majesties' forces under my command. By H. Mackay, Strathbogie, the 17th August, 1689.:The Brigadier Balfour, my brother, and others, were killed after their men abandoned them. Lieutenant-colonel Lauder was abandoned by his party, and laboured without success to rally them.|
|8) Huygens journal under 9 October 1689: Lauder kreegh het regiment van Balfour, daer Lt Cor. van was.|
|9) Mackay to the Privy Council 28 July 1690:.. Argyle and Lauder at Perth|
|10) Europische Mercurius for 1691 page 27, has Lauder's regiment on a January 1691 list of troops to be maintained by William III.|
|11) Europische Mercurius for 1692 second part page 94, has the allied losses at Steenkerque.|
|12) Europische Mercurius for 1692 second part page 95, has colonel 'Ladder' wounded at Steenkerque.|
|13) Ferguson's page 486 has Colonel Lauder taken prisoner.|
|14) Europische Mercurius for 1693 firt part page 59, has colonel Lauder's regiment in the list of troops for 1693.|
|15) Ferguson's page 487 has Colonel Lauder's regiment in the Battle of Neerwinden.|
|16) Europische Mercurius for 1699 part 1 page 139 has the Dispositie der cavallery, dragonders, en infantery voor den garnisoenen van den Jaare 1699, with Lauder's regiment in Bergen op Zoom.|
|17) Pelet for 1702 page 642 has: Etat des troupes Hollandaises. Anglaises et autres, en garnison dans les places ennemies, du 21 Décembre 1702, with 'Ladder' in Flanders.|
|18) Staatse Leger Volume 8 part 1 page 757: Ordre de Bataille van het leger van Ouwerkerk, 26 July 1704, has Lauder's regiment.|