Wiliam Stewart's regiment of foot

9th Foot
Commanded by:
Henry Cornwall119 June 1685
Oliver Nicholas220 November 1688
John Cunningham331 December 1688
William Stewart41 May 1689
James Campbell27 July 1715

1 Regiment raised by Henry Cornwall for James II

This5 was one of the regiments which was raised in reaction to the Duke of Monmouth's landing in England. On 19 June 1685 Henry Cornwall was appointed its first colonel. On 20 November 1688 he was replaced by Oliver Nicholas. This Oliver Nicholas then refused to take the oath to William III

2 The regiment in the Nine Years War

2.1 Failure at Londonderry

John Cunningham was appointed as colonel to replace Nicholas. In April 1689 Cunningham's regiment sailed for Londonderry. Appraising the situation to be hopeless Cunningham then retreated to England, where William III sacked him.

2.2 Stewart regiment in Ireland

On 1 May 1689 William Stewart was appointed as colonel. With him it again sailed to Londonderry in the expedition under Kirke. Here the Stewart regiment fought its first engagements in lifting this siege. After that is marched to the camp at Dundalk where it arrived in September 1689.

In July 1690 the regiment participated in the Battle of the Boyne. In June 1691 it took part in the siege of Athlone and in July it fought at Aughrim. It concluded its Irish campaign when it took part in the August 1691 siege of Limerick. After Limerick the Stewart regiment remained in Ireland and saw no further action.

According to a 16 December 1698 list6 the regiment designated as Major General Stewart's survived the 1699 disbandings by being on the Irish establishment.

3 The Stewart regiment in the War of the Spanish Succession

3.1 Stewart regiment to Liège

On 15 June 1701 Stewart's regiment embarked at Cork and after a brief sojourn in Plymouth it reached the United Provinces. In the spring of 1702 it camped near Rosendaal from whence they left for the front near Cleves. In June 1702 it was involved in the Nijmegen engagement. During the sieges of Venlo, Roermond and Stevensweert it was in the covering army. On 23 October it participated in the assault of the citadel of Liège. In November it sailed for England.

3.2 Stewart regiment campaigns in Portugal

From England it sailed to Spain7 and in March 1704 it arrived at Lisbon. Here it was garrisoned at Castel de Vide were its soldiers were made prisoners of war. It was however soon exchanged and in spring 1705 it took part in the Portuguese invasion of Spain. Here it was deployed in the successful sieges of Valencia de Alcantara and Albuquerque and the failed siege of Badajoz. In March 1706 it was again part of the Portuguese incursion into Spain here it took part in the siege of Alcantara which was captured in April and the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo which was captured in May.

3.3 Stewart regiment at Almanza

After the capture of Madrid it retreated with the rest of the army and was part of the defeat at Almansa. Only about a hundred men escaped and garrisoned the town of Alcira. This was soon besieged and though the regiment surrendered obtained the right to rejoin the main force it left out the words 'by the shortest and most convenient route' and so it was forced to a three month detour. At long last it did however arrive in Catalunia and in November it counted 380 men. It was however decided that the serviceable men should join other units and the regiment would be recruited anew in England.

3.4 Stewart's regiment in Ireland

In the summer of 1708 it arrived in Portsmouth and in 1709 it moved to Ireland where it set out the rest of the war. For some not entirely clear reason William Stewart was then replaced by James Campbell on 27 July 1715.

4 Notes

1) English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. IV London 1898, page 6 has 19 June 1685 as date of the Henry Cornwall's appointment (present in the commission entry books)
2) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 6 has 20 November 1688 as date of the Oliver Nicholas' appointment (present in the commission entry books)
3) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 6 has 31 December 1688 as date of the John Cunningham's appointment (not present in the commission entry books)
4) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 6 has 1 May 1689 as date of the William Stewart's appointment (present in the commission entry books)
5) For Stewart's regiment see (unless otherwise stated): Historical Records of the British Army London 1847, The Ninth or East Norfolk regiment of foot.
6) House of Commons Journal Vol. 12 16 December 1698 has Major-General Stewart's on the establishment of Ireland.
7) Mercure Historique et Politique for 1703 vol. 2 page 673 for Stewart's regiment being designated to go to Spain.