|a.k.a The Buffs, Holland regiment,|
|Prince George of Denmark's regiment|
|by Godfrey Kneller (circle of)|
|Guernsey Museum & Art Gallery|
|Robert Sidney1||31 May 1665|
|Sir Walter Vane2||12 Aug. 1668|
|John Earl of Mulgrave3||12 Dec. 1673|
|Philip Earl of Chesterfield4||6 Nov. 1682|
|John Earl of Mulgrave5||26 Jan. 1684|
|Sir Theodore Oglethorpe6||23 Oct. 1685|
|Charles Churchill7||31 Dec. 1688|
|John Duke of Argyle||25 Feb. 1707|
|John Selwyn||26 Feb. 1711|
1 Origins as Holland Regiment
After the peace of Munster (1648) a lot of English who had fought for the United Provinces still remained in their service. During the first Anglo-Dutch war this did not pose such a problem. Most figthing was done at sea, and any loyalists would anyhow fight the Commonwealth. Perhaps it did lead to the role of English troops in the States army being reduced. In 1655 these troops were down to the strength of one regiment under the command of John Cromwell, who changed his name to 'Williams'.
In early 1665 King Charles II then demanded that this regiment 'returned' to England. On 31 May 1665 Robert Sidney was appointed its colonel and it retained the designation 'Holland Regiment'. On its arrival in England it had 6 companies of 100 men each, besides officers. In 1666 four more companies of like size were added. Each company was armed with 30 pikes, 60 matchlock muskets, 13 firelocks, 103 swords, 2 halberds, 1 partisan and 2 drums.
On 12 August 1668 Sir Walter Vane was appointed as its colonel. He was succeeded by John Earl Mulgrave on 12 December 1673. In 1678 the Holland regiment reached a peak strength of 2,180 men. In the autumn of 1682 command was transferred to Philip Earl of Chesterfield, but on 26 January 1684 the Earl of Mulgrave was reappointed. After the Monmouth rebellion Theophilus Oglethorp was appointed as colonel of this regiment on 25 October 16858. Oglethorp stayed loyal to James II and was sacked for refusing to take the oath to King William.
2 Charles Churchill's regiment during the Nine Years War
Charles Churchill (brother of the later Duke of Marlborough) was appointed as colonel of this regiment on 31 December 16889. It was then sent to Flanders to participate in the alliance war effort. During the winter of 1689-1690 it was in Brugge and Gent10.
On 3 August 1692 Churchill's regiment was in the Battle of Steenkerque, where it lost 3 killed and 7 wounded11. In June 1693 Churchill's was with the alliance army near the Abbey of Parck as 'Prince George'12. The Charles Churchill regiment was with 445 men on the 5 March 1699 bill that listed the 7,000 troops that were to remain on the English establishment.
3 Churchill's regiment of Foot in the War of the Spanish Succession
In 1702 Churchill's regiment took part in the expedition to Cadiz and in the August 1702 fighting near that place. In October 1702 it participated in the landings near Vigo. In 1703 it went to the United Provinces were it landed at Willemstad on 23 April. In 1704 it took part in the march to the Danube. Here it participated in the 1704 battle for the Schellenberg and the battle of Blenheim. After Blenheim it was used to escort prisoners to the United Provinces and remained in garrison the rest of the year. In 1705 it participated in breaking the Brabant lines. It was also present at Ramillies.
On 25 February 1707 Charles Churchill was promoted to command the second foot guards and John Duke of Argyle became colonel of the regiment. In spring 1708 the regiment was part of the troops embarked to prevent the attempt on Scotland. Later that year it participated in the battle of Oudenaarde and was in the covering army of the siege of Lille. In 1709 it took part in the siege of Tournay and the battle of Malplaquet. The Duke of Argyle was to command the British troops in Spain and on 26 February 1711 Major General John Selwyn became colonel of this regiment. Under his command it participated in the siege of Bouchain.
The third regiment has a book about its history Historical Records of the British Army London 1837, the third regiment of Foot or The Buffs.
|1) English Army Lists and Commission Registers, 1661-1714, Vol. IV London 1898, page 4 has 31 May 1665 as date of Robert Sidney's appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|2) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 12 August 1668 as date of Sir Walter Vane's appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|3) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 12 December 1673 as date of John Earl of Mulgrave's appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|4) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 6 November 1682 as date of Philip Earl of Chesterfield's appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|5) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 26 January 1684 as date of John Earl of Mulgrave's re-appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|6) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 23 October 1685 as date of Sir Theodore Oglethorpe's appointment (present in the commission entry books)|
|7) English Army Lists, Vol. IV, page 4 has 31 December 1688 as date of Charles Churchill's appointment (not present in the commission entry books)|
|8) For Charles Churchill's regiment see (unless otherwise stated): Historical Records of the British Army London 1837, the third regiment of Foot or The Buffs, page 111.|
|9) Historical Records of the British Army London 1837, the third regiment of Foot or The Buffs, page 128.|
|10) Wilhelm III von Oranien und Georg Friedrich von Waldeck by P.L. Müller, The Hague 1873 v. 2 page 227 has the appendix D: Die Niederländische Armee unter Waldecks Oberbefehl im Winter 1689-90, it has the Churchill (Holland Regt.) regiment as wintering in Brugge and Gent.|
|11) Wilhelm III von Oranien und Georg Friedrich von Waldeck by P.L. Müller, The Hague 1873 v. 2 page 238 has the appendix G: Verluste der Alliierten bei Steenkerken. 3 Aug. 1692, it has Churchill's regiment with its losses.|
|12) Europische Mercurius for June 1693 page 289 has the Lyste van het leger der Geallieerden, gecampeerd by d'Abdye van Park, onder den Koning van Engeland en den Keurvorst van Beyeren., with Churchill's as 'Prins George'|