Lord Orkney's regiment of foot, 2 battalions

1st Foot
A.k.a. as 'Royal Regiment' and
'Royal Scots'
Portrait of Earl of Orkney
The Earl of Orkney
Commanded by:
Lord Dumbarton1678, but dismissed
Lord DumbartonRestored Aug. 1685
Duke of Schomberg131 Dec. 1688
Sir Robert Douglas25 March 1691
George Hamilton1 August 1692
aft. Earl of Orkney3

1 Starts as Hepburn's regiment of Foot

The Royal Scots4 are the oldest regiment in the British armed forces. I will not dwell to much on its oldest roots, suffice to say that it started as a regiment in the service of Gustav Adolphus, and in 1625 a detachment of the Royal Scots landed in Scotland under Colonel Robert Hepburn. From Scotland Hepburn passed to French service and was killed in 1636. He was succeeded by Colonel George, who was killed in an assault on Chatillon in 1637. He was succeeded by Colonel James Douglas for whom the regiment was renamed as Régiment de Douglas.

2 Régiment de Douglas

2.1 For France against Spain

The Douglas regiment fought the Spaniards in 1638-1639 and participated in the 1638 siege of St. Omer5 and other operations in the Spanish Netherlands. The Douglas regiment then went to Piedmont and served the Prince of Savoy. In August-September 1643 it participated in the Siege of Turin and garrisoned for a time. In 1644 it was back in the Spanish Netherlands and helped the Siege of Gravelines. In 1645 James Douglas fell in a skirmish near Douai, and was succeeded by his eldest brother Archibald Douglas, later Earl of Angus and Ormond, his command was however a merely nominal one.

During the Fronde the Douglas regiment served in the 1650 Siege of Paris. In November and December 1652 it besieged Bar-le-Duc and later in December it participated in the conquest of Ligny. In 1653 Archibald Douglas was succeeded by his half brother Lord George Douglas, later Earl of Dumbarton. In 1658 the regiment was in the Battle of the Dunes. In 1660 it went into garrison in Avennes. . In 1661 Charles II asked the regiment back from Louis XIV and it arrived in 1661 or 1662. In 1662 the Douglas regiment was sent back to France.

2.2 Douglas regiment in the Anglo-Dutch war

In 1665 Charles II declared war on the United Provinces. On 1 March 1666 Colonel George Douglas therefore went to Paris to ask for leave to return the regiment to England. In June 1666 the regiment landed in Rye and it was quartered at Chatham till about July 1667. During the Dutch raid on Chatham the regiment tarnished its reputation by plundering after the Dutch soldiers had left. On 12 October 1667 it embarked at Rye and went back to France. In chauvinist 19th century English books there are mentions of the Douglas regiment fighting for pre-eminence with the Picardie regiment, but this is not likely. By an ordonnance of 26 March 1670 Louis XIV ordered the rank that each regiment had. By this the Douglas regiment ranked 13th, behind the regiments of Sault, Bandeville and Saint Vallier6.

2.3 Douglas regiment in the Franco-Dutch war

In the Franco-Dutch war the regiment had two battalions. It participated in the 1672 Siege of Graave and the famous 1673 Siege of Maastricht. It then continued fighting on the Upper Rhine, where it participated in the Siege of Dachstein in January 16757. On 9 March 1675 Lord George Douglas was created Earl of Dumbarton. In July 1675 300 men of the 'Régiment de Douglas' left Trier in order to attack the town of Bidburg in (then) Luxemburg. In the subsequent conquest Count Douglas was wounded by a musket ball8. Later in 1675 it participated in the defense of Trèves. In 1676 the Douglas participated in the Siege of Bouchain, which started on 2 May. The Douglas regiment was mentioned as being in the trenches on 7 May 16769. In 1677 it was in the Upper Rhine campaign, which ended in November 1677.

2.4 The Douglas regiment returns to England

On 29 January 1678 Lord Dumbarton went to France to retrieve his regiment in order to serve in England. This may have taken some time, but on 1 September they mustered in Hertfordshire, 21 companies strong. This year it also got a grenadier company under Captain Robert Hodges. In England the Roman Catholic Lord Dumbarton could not officially hold his commmand, and so he was officially removed from his command by Charles II. In April 1679 the Douglas regiment landed at Kinsale and was transferred to the Irish establishment. In 1680 the Siege of Tangier by the Moors led to 16 companies of the Douglas regiment being shipped thither. At Tangiers the Douglas regiment saw heavy fighting in 1680 and after that it returned to England in the winter of 1683-1684. In 1684 the Douglas regiment was titled as 'The Royal regiment of Foot'.

2.5 The Douglas regiment under James II

Upon the accession of James II/VII on 6 February 1685 Lord Dumbarton was appointed commander in chief of the forces in Scotland. Lord Dumbarton fought with his regiment in the Battle of Sedgemoor. In August 1685 James II restored Lord Dumbarton to the full command of his regiment. In November 1685 Lord Dumbarton was appointed as a lieutenant-general. On 20 March 1686 the second battalion was ordered to Scotland. In June 1686 the first battalion, with the grenadiers, was moved to Hounslow Heath. Afterwards it went into garrison in Portsmouth. In August 1687 it left Portsmouth and went to Yorkshire. In 1688 the second battalion of the regiment returned to England and was at Ware Herts in August. The first defended the Thames, and in September both were joined at Gravesend. In late November both battalions were at Andover, and from there they marched to Warminster. Lord Dumbarton was with his regiment, but did not get permission to take action, the force retiring on Windsor. On 23 December 1688 James II left England and Lord Dumbarton followed soon after.

3 The Nine Years War

3.1 Schomberg's regiment

On 5 January 1689 the regiment was ordered to march form Oxford to various stations in Suffolk, no doubt as a prelude to embarkation to the Low Countries. Shortly after Frederick Schomberg, the recently created Duke of Schomberg was appointed as colonel. This was a breach with the tradition of having a Douglas as colonel, but even more importantly, it ignored the fact that Scotland had not yet recognized the Prince of Orange as King William II of Scotland.

3.2 the regiment mutinies

While the Castle of Edinburg was still in the hands of James II, and Scotland was still not pacified, the regiment revolted. At Ipswich one of the battalions mutinied and refused to embark. On 25 March the news in London was that: 'Two captains, many soldiers, and a few hundred fusiliers marched with four guns and the many sent to pay them from Ipswich OHC 5 April 1689. They marched for the Isle of Ely and County of Lincoln, intending to make their way to Scotland under the leadership of Lieutenant Alexander Gawen.

Lieutenant-General Ginckel was sent north with Dutch Cavalry and Dragoons, and the Regiments of Lanier and Langston. Near Sleaford the mutineers deployed for battle in an advantageous position, with their field pieces in front of them OHC 12 April 1689. However, after the rebels were surrounded, they beat a parley and surrendered at discretion. These 500 soldiers and 20 officers were then escorted to London.

Gawen got off with being dismissed from the service. A captain of the regiment was executed on tower hill and 6 soliders had to run the gauntlet OHC 14 July 1689. As an aside it might be remarked that this mutiny was the cause for creating the Mutiny act.

3.3 the regiment temporarily split

After this mutiny the Schomberg regiment was divided into two parts which might not have reflected the two battalions from before the Glorious Revolution. One part went to Scotland to recruit, but this was probably only after William III had established his authority there. Another part was ready to fight and was called first battalion On 9 March 1689 Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Robert Douglas was made commander of this. It embarked for the Low Countries and joined the Alliance army near Tirlemont on 10 June 1689. On 25 August 1689 the regiment was in the Battle of Walcourt. On 6 October 1689 Schomberg's regiment was in the alliance order of battle near Alteren with one battalion10.

At the end of the campaign the second battalion joined the first. The Schomberg regiment then wintered in Brugge and Gent11. Frederic Schomberg was in high command in Ireland, and would be killed on the Boyne on 12 July 1690 (N.S). The Schomberg regiment continued in Flanders and probably started the campaign near Gent and Brugge. It probably missed the Battle of Fleurus by still being near Gent and Brugge, and arriving in the main army a few days after12. On 5 August 1690 the Schomberg regiment was in camp near Genappe13. In mid-August 1690 the Schomberg regiment was camped near Halle14. On 1 September 1690 Schomberg's regiment was in the main force at Saint Quentin's Lennick15.

3.4 Douglas regiment once more

On 5 March 1691 Lieutenant-colonel Robert Douglas of Glenbervie was promoted to colonel. In June the 'Duglas' regiment camped near Oprebayx16. On 26 June 1691 the Douglas regiment was camped near Gemblours17. On 3 August 1692 the Douglas regiment participated in the battle of Steenkerque. Here its first battalion was in the advance guard and suffered 177 killed and 86 wounded. The second battalion came off with 2 killed and 2 wounded18. Colonel Douglas was amongst those killed.

3.5 Lord Orkney's regiment of Foot

George Hamilton (First Earl of Orkney on 3 January 1696.) was the fifth son of the Duke of Hamilton and had been a company officer in the regiment in 1684, when his uncle the Earl of Dumbarton was colonel. In January 1692 he had been made colonel of the Fusileers, but after distinguishing himself at Steenkerque he was appointed as colonel of the Douglas regiment that same month.

In June 1693 the Hamilton regiment camped near the Abbey of Parck with 2 battalions19. In July 1693 the Hamilton regiment was in the Battle of Landen. Here it saw heavy fighitng in the villange of Neerlanden. In October the regiment was back in Brugge. In May 1694 the first batallion was near Louvain, but the second stayed back in Brugge until June. In 1695 the regiment participated in the Siege of Namur. Here the regiment participated in some assaults. On 10 July 1695 Hamilton was promoted to brigadier-general.

3.6 Royal Scots paid by Ireland

It is sure that during the Nine Years War the regiment was considered to be the first of his majesties ordinary regiments of foot and was often designated as 'Royal'. On the other hand the title Royal probably referred to the King of Scotland. It's notable that in the 1699 disbandings the later 2nd, 3rd and 4th Foot were the only regular infantry to be kept on the English establishment. Orkney's regiment was listed as 'Royal Foot' as the first of the regiments that had to survive the 1699 disbandings by being on the Irish establishment.

4 The War of the Spanish Succession

4.1 To the United Provinces

In 1701 both battalions of Orkney's regiment sailed for the United Provinces. In the operations against Kaiserswerth Orkney's was part of the army commanded by Athlone. After Marlborough had taken command Orkney's was in the July 1702 camp at Dukenburg, designated as 'Orkneij's'. The regiment might have participated in the Siege of Roermond. It wintered in Breda. There is no record of the regiment being involved in any conspicuous action in 1703.

4.2 The Earl of Orkney wounded at the Schellenberg

In early May 1704 Lord Orkney's regiment was one of those that marched to the Danube. In July it fought in the Battle of the Schellenberg. In the assault party there were five British battalions; 2 of Orkney's regiment; one of the Guards and one of the Ingoldsby; the other unknown. Each of these British battalions suffered about 200 casualties, and the Earl of Orkney was severely wounded. In August 1704 the Battle of Blenheim followed. Here one of Orkney's battalions assaulted Blenheim. After this battle the second battalion was employed in conducting the prisoners to the United Provinces.

In early 1705 there were some difficulties with some of the recruits being English. On 8 March the colonel embarked with the Duke of Marlborough for the United Provinces. The 1705 campaign then opened with the failed move up the Moselle. In July the first battalion was in the successful siege of Huy. In mid July the Battle for the lines of Brabant followed.

4.3 The Royal Scots at Ramillies

In May 1706 Lord Orkney's regiment mustered with the British forces at Bilsen north-west of Maastricht. On 23 May it fought in the Battle of Ramillies. The second battalion of the regiment was in Meredith's brigade, which attacked on the right. The first battalion was in the struggle for Offus. After the battle the regiment was engaged in the sieges of Dendermonde, Oostende, Menin and Ath. Orkney's regiment wintered in Gent.

In 1707 the regiment continued in Flanders, but nothing of note happened. The only significant event was the union of England and Scotland, which made Orkney's regiment a British in stead of a Scottish one. In March 1708 the regiment was called back to Britain in order to counter the French invasion attempt. Orkney's regiment reached Tynemouth, but did not disembark and were back in Oostende on 20 April.

4.4 The Royal Scots at Ooudenaarde

Soon after the alliance was surpised by the loss of Gent and Brugge. In early July the alliance army moved west and the regiment found itself in the Battle of Oudenaarde.

4.5 Lille and Wijnendaal

Next came the Siege of Lille. During this siege a battalion of Orkney's regiment under Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton fought in the Battle of Wijnendaal. The regiment saw heavy fighring in the siege and in November 1709 it was part of the force sent to relief the Siege of Brussel. The regiment ended the campaign with the Siege of Gent. Gent then became their winter quarters.

4.6 Malplaquet

In 1709 the regiment started in the Siege of Tournay, the siege of the town ending on 29 July. The regiment then became part of the covering force, and the grenadiers moved on to the siege of Mons. In September 1709 both battalions were in the Battle of Malplaquet. The campaign ended with the surrender of Mons. In 1710 Orkney's regiment participated in the Siege of Douai, and later in those of Bethune and Aire. In 1711 Orkney's participated in the Siege of Bouchain. In 1712 nothing much happened, except that the regiment occupied Dunkirk as part of the negotiations between France and Britain.

On 31 January 1711 the Earl of Orkney had been appointed as general. On 23 April 1713 the regiment was described as 'The Royal regiment of foot, commanded by the Earl of Orkney. It was a fortnight after the accession of George I that the regiment moved from Nieuwpoort to England. After that it went to Ireland.

5 Notes

1) English Army Lists and Commission Registers has 31 December 1688 as date of Frederic Duke of Schomberg's appointment (and has it as present in the commission entry books)
2) English Army Lists and Commission Registers has 5 March 1691 as date of Sir Robert Douglas' appointment (and has it as present in the commission entry books)
3) English Army Lists and Commission Registers has 1 August 1692 as date of Lord George Hamilton's appointment (and has it as present in the commission entry books)
4) The basis of this description is: 'The Story of The Royal Scots (The Lothian regiment) by Lawrence Weaver, London. For an older sketch of this regiment go to page 350 of: Letters from the Levant London 1813, page 350-368, A historical sketch of the Royal Scots by James Hamilton.
5) Letter of Maréchal de Chatillon to Monsieur de Noyers 31 May 1638: '.. mais je fis donner si brusquement quatre cens hommes du regiment de Champagne, autant de celuy d'Escossois commandé par le Colonel Douglas, qu'ils quiterent leur retranchement, avec grand estonnement.'
6) Reglemens et ordonnances du Roy pour les gens de guerre Tome II, printed Paris 1675 page 251 for this rank.
7) Suite du Mercure Hollandois contenant les avantages que nostre invincible monarque Louis XIV etc., printed Lyon 1676, under 1675 page 161: 'Le 28. au soir avant que la tranchée fut relevée, on donna l'assaut a la tour. On commanda des grenadiers de La Ferté, & de Douglas, soustenus par les corps dont ils avoient été detachez..'
8) Suite du Mercure Hollandois contenant les avantages que nostre invincible monarque Louis XIV etc., printed Lyon 1676 under 1675 page 228: 'Le Comte de Vignory Gouverneur de Treves en partit aussi, avec le Regiment de Cavalerie Royal Wallon, celui de Givry, les dragons & Fuzeliers de Vignory, & du Major, 300. hommes de Douglas, 200. des bataillons François, & quantité de grenades, petards, & eschelles, pour attaquer la Ville de Bidebourg dans le Luxembourg.'
9) Suite du Mercure Hollandois contenant les avantages que nostre invincible monarque Louis XIV etc., printed Lyon 1676, under 1675 page 418: 'Le 7. au soir, le Marquis de Reneal Mestre de Camp General de la Cavalerie, & Lieutenant General, monta la seconde garde de la tranchée, avec un Bataillon de Douglas, & le Regiment d'Orleans, commandé par le Marquis de Thoiras.'
10) DIGAM has a map: Bataille der Holländischen Armée, wie sie sich wieder die Franzosen bey Alteren den 6. Octobris 1689 gestellet., with the Schomberg's regiment with one battalion.
11) Wilhelm III von Oranien und Georg Friedrich von Waldeck by P.L. Müller, The Hague 1873 v. 2 page 227 has the appendix D: Die Niederländische Armee unter Waldecks Oberbefehl im Winter 1689-90, it has the Schönberg (Schott.) (Ob. Lt. Waley) as wintering in Brugge and Gent.
12) Europosche Mercurius for July 1690 has a letter by J. Hulst from Brussel on 4 July 1690 to the States General: De zes Engelsche regimenten van Gent en Brugge staan deze avond in 't campement aan te komen.
13) DIGAM has a map: Campement de Genappe den 5 Augusti 1690, there is a Schomberg regiment on it with one battalion in the Brandenburg army, but this not this regiment. The Schomberg regiment is only designated by three battalions designated 'English' under number 39. One can then compare this order of battle with an umarked one under WHK 7/42, which matches in composition and fill in the names.
14) DIGAM has a map: Campement de l'Armee des Confederes d'aupres de Halle, du 13-23 Aout 1690, with the Schomberg regiment on the left and also a Schomberg regiment in the army of the elector of Brandenburg.
15) DIGAM has an undated map with the later title: St. Quentin's Lennick 1690 1/9 with the Schomberg's regiment on it with two battalions, and also the Brandenburg Schomberg regiment.
16) DIGAM has the: Sterckte van de Arme, Soo als die gecampeert geweest is tot Oprebaijx den Juny 1691, with the 'Duglas' regiment of two battalions in the second place on the right of the second line, next to the Scots Guards.
17) DIGAM has the: Armée de sa Majesté le roy d'Angleterre; campée aux environ de Gemblours de puis le 26 June 1691, with the 2-battalion 'Duglas' in the second line.
18) Wilhelm III von Oranien und Georg Friedrich von Waldeck by P.L. Müller, The Hague 1873 v. 2 page 238 has the appendix G: Verluste der Alliierten bei Steenkerken. 3 Aug. 1692, it has the first and second battalions of the Royal Scots with their losses.
19) Europische Mercurius for June 1693 page 289 has the Lyste van het leger der Geallieerden, gecampeerd by d'Abdye van Park, onder den Koning van Engeland en den Keurvorst van Beyeren., it has Hamilton's with two battalions in its usual place of honor.