1 Origins of the regiment
1.1 First colonels
The Fourneau regiment traced its origins back to 1649, when in the Spanish Netherlands a regiment had been created by the Prince of Hessen-Homburg 1. In 1653 the Marquis de Conflans succeeded Hessen-Homburg 2. In 1667 the Comte de Trautmansdorf succeeded 3.
1.2 Baron de Quincy
The Baron de Quincy became colonel of this regiment in 1669 4. The Baron de Quincy deserted to the French side, probably in 1675.
1.3 Colonel Massiette
In March 1676 Quincy's company was given to M. de la Martiere, to whom the baron had offered 18,000 guilders to follow him in his desertion OHC 19 March 1676. Another story is that Quincy's regiment was given to Sergeant-Major Massiette (Mercury March 1676).
Before this, in July 1675 Sergeant-Major Massiette had been on a mission with 150 cavalry, and taken some 40 draught horses. With that he got so much confidence from the staff, that another 150 cavalry under his brother Colonel Massiette were added to his party. With these a successful ambush was carried out (Mercury July 1675)
This seems preplexing, but in April 1676 the Spanish Colonel Massiette rode with 60-70 men of his regiment from Luxemburg to Brussel. He was surprised by a French party near Marche en Famine. The French party lost the ambush, but Colonel Massiette was killed (Mercury April 1676). In June 1676 the Baron de Quincy was first ambushed near Cambrai with a few hundred dead. He had his revenge a week later, killing a few hundred Spanish, amongst them the other Colonel Massiette en ontroerenden leeuw p. 55.
Nevertheless: there were two Massiette regiments in 1676 Schlachtordnung der niederländischen Truppen zur Verteidigung von Condé und Bouchin, 1676 Massiette le Jeune and Massiette le Cadet both with 2 squadrons (next to the Odrigny mentioned below).
2 Vicomte d'Audregnies
2.1 Vicomte vs Seigneur d'Audregnies
In order to understand this discussion, one has to be aware that a few hundred years ago, people were not that aware, or caring about correct or standardized spelling. In official documents names had a wide variety of spelling. This makes that Audrignies can become Odrigny.
The official history written in the eighteenth century to establish the seniority of the regiments had that in 1675 Quincy was succeeded by the Vicomte d'Angrigny 5. The above clearly shows that Quincy was followed by Massiette in 1676. Later research came up with a contradiction: 1677-1684: en las muestras consultadas de este período constan a la vez los tercios de Bethencourt y de Audrignies, luego son dos tercios distintos. cf. Revista de Historia Militar. This translates as '1677-1684: In the reviews consulted of this period both the tercios of Bethencourt and Audrignies are recorded, then they are two different tercios.'. The solution seemed obvious: Bethencourt and Audrignies were the same person, but he is not a viscount, only a Seigneur.
However unlikely it seems, this was not the case. The Baron of St. Jean who commanded the regiment later known as Noirmont had younger brothers, and one of them was known as André-Lamoral de Gand-Vilain Vicomte d'Adregnies (1645-1705). Also known as: André de Gand Vicomte d'Audrignies Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas p. 529. More specifically: in January 1675 the Baron of Anderni brother of the Baron de St Jean was made colonel of a new regiment that had first been given to M. du Puy a few days before La gazette d'Amsterdam 29 Jan 1675. Note that this refers to a new regiment, but also to a baron, not a vicomte.
2.2 Regiment Audregnies
In September 1675 the regiments of the Baron de St Jean and the Vicomte d'Onderny were sent to the Land of Waes La Gazette d'Amsterdam. On 28 October 1675 the cavalry of the Viscount (Markgraef) d'Anderny moved to Aire and St. Omar (Mercurius 1675). The above gives us a trace of the Vicomte d'Andrigny regiment, and does not contradict the official story.
The presence of an 'Odrigny' regiment in 1676 Schlachtordnung der niederländischen Truppen zur Verteidigung von Condé und Bouchin, 1676 does contradict the official story. In February the Vicomte d'Audrigny was in action near Aire 8 February 1676. But as long as no Bettencourt regiment surfaces, all this only puts the date of this succession in doubt.
A much later regiment d'Oderny comes up in 1686, but it could have been new: In May 1686 the regiment of the Vicomte d'Oderny was sent from Mons to Gent AC 28 May 1686
3.1 Severin de Bethencourt
In 1675 (I doubt this year) M. de Bettancour became Colonel of this regiment6. Finding this Bethencourt amongst many of that name was a challenge, but on 20 October 1689 there is a: "Nous Severin de Bethencourt, seigneur d'Audregny Maistre de Camp d'un Terce de Cavalerie" Vierden Placcaetboeck page 1741. Pierre-Antoine de Béthencourt (1627-1657) was was governor of Courtrai. Pierre-Antoine was married to Yolenthe de Mainsent, and so became Seigneur d'Audregnies. Their son Séverin de Bethencourt (1653-1693, Louvain) became member of the States of Hainaut, Colonel of cavalry etc. He tried to leave all his belongings to Antoine Chrétien de Chasteler, seigneur de Moulbaix cf. Villes et villages de la vallée de la Haine
3.2 The Bethencourt Regiment
In 1677 the "Betencourt" regiment entered Brussel OHC 11 Nov 1677
The Bethencourt regiment is visible in many orders of battle of the Nine Years War. In October 1689 the Bettancourt regiment was in the OOB near Ateren Schlachtordnung der holländischen Armee gegen die Franzosen bei Ateren den 6. Oktober 1689 In August 1690 the Bettancourt regiment was in the OOB near Halle Campement de l'Armée de Confederes d'auprès de Halle, du 13/23 Aoust 1690. In September 1690 the Bettancourt regiment was in the OOB near St Quintin Lynnecke Schlachtordnung der holländischen Armee bei St. Quintin Lynnecke, 1690, fielding 2 squadrons.
In 1691 the Bettancourt regiment was in the alliance OOB Alliierte Armeen in Braband unter dem Commando Ihro Maiest. König Wilhelm Von Engeland im jahr Christii 1691, fielding 1 squadron. Also in 1691 the 'Belercourt' regiment was in the alliance OOB Front de l'armée, really an untitled OOB of the alliance near Lembeck and Halle, with three squadrons. Also in 1691 the 'Bettencourt' regiment was in the alliance OOB Bataille, wie solche unter Ihr. König. Maystt. König Wilhelm von Engelland, wieder die Frantzosen in Braband bei Didenhofen, 1691, gestanden, probably an OOB of the alliance near Thionville, with one squadron. In June 1691 the Battancourt regiment was in the alliance OOB Sterckte van de Armee soo als de gecampeert geweest is to Oprebayx den juni 1691, an OOB of the alliance near Oprebayx, with one squadron.
In 1692 the 'Betencourt' regiment was in the alliance OOB L'Armee du roy d'Angleterre commandée par sa Majeste Britanique en l'an 1692 with 1 squadron. On 24 June 1692 the Bettancourt regiment was in the alliance OOB D'Armé ordert beleijt van sijn conincklijche Majesteijt gecampeert de Mellê den 24. Junii 1692 with 1 squadron. On 6 July 1692 the Bettencourt regiment was in the alliance OOB Camp de Genappe Le 6me de Juilet 1692 near Genappe. On 24 July 1692 the Batancourt regiment was in the alliance OOB Bataille der Allyrten Armée wieder die Frantzosen vor Namur in Braband den 24. Julii 1692 gestanden near Namur. On 2 August 1692 the Bettancourt regiment was in the alliance OOB Campement tot Limbeck op den 2 Augustus 1692 near Limbeek.
In 1693 there are 2 Squadrons of Bertencourt OHC 9 July 1693 and 8b in the alliance OOB. in 1694 the Bettancourt is mentioned in the OOB.
4 Regiment de Fourneau
4.1 The Fourneau family
Philippe-François de Fourneau (-1666) became an imperial baron in 1643, Baron de la Chapelle in 1650 and admitted to the Brabant nobility in 16506b. In 1662 he became Comte de Cruquembourg. He married Isabelle van Berchem in 1629 and with her got 10 children.
The eldest son of the Comte de Cruquembourg was Philippe-Théodore de Fourneau (1630-1701?) married to Marie-Anne de Berchem in 1653. He became a captain and later major in the cavalry tercio of maître de camp Gregorio de Alvaredo y Bracamonte. (Vegiano has Cavalry major in 1666, Colonel of a Walloon infantry regiment in 1667, and captain of an independent Cuirassier company). His brother Ignace de Fourneau became captain of a company of 100 cuirassiers of the Tercio of Baron de Saint-Jean, then Major in the regiment of the Comte de Mastaing (note that Mastaing succeeded Saint Jean in the regiment later known as Barcelona), and finally maître de camp (colonel) de cavalerie. Their brother Henri-François, baron de Fourneau became second lieutenant in the fuseliers later in the grenadiers, and became a captain of infantry (in 1645!) and a major in the cavalry in 1695. He married Catherine-Françoise de Gheusere in 1673 and had a daughter Anne-Angeline de Fourneau.
Philippe-François de Fourneau (-31 December 1706) son of Philippe-Théodore married his cousin Anne-Angéline (1678-) only daughter of Henri-François de Fourneau in 1695. Philippe-François inherited much wealth and was admitted to the nobility of Brabant in 1697. His brother Henri Théodore baron de Fourneau (-1724) dit de Wodecq7 became a cornet in the company of his uncle Henri François de Fourneau. He became an ensign, captain of a cuirassier company, then of a Spanish cuirassier company, lieutenant-colonel of the cavalry regiment of colonel Diego de Los Rios and finally colonel of a Cuirassier regiment before leaving the service in 1707. This explains Henri Théodore having been colonel, but not of this regiment. A third brother Antoine de Fourneau (?-1729) became alfère (ensign) in the cavalry company of his uncle Ignace de Fourneau. In 1666 he became a Chevalier de Malte.
4.2 Dragoon Regiment Fourneau
So why all the fuss? According to La Science etc. Don Ignace de Fourneau became colonel of the Bettancourt cavalry regiment in 1693 8, and the description of the Fourneau family seems to confirm it. Well: A Chevalier de Fournaux is mentioned as slipping into the city of Mons OHC 24 April 1691, which surrendered on 10 April 1691. During the Siege of Mons the Chevalier de Fourneau was major of the Mastain regiment. After the fight he got Dragoon regiment of Colonel de Ville who had died in the fighting OHC 14 April 1691. Later in 1691, the "regiment of the Baron de Fourneaux" was inspected after receiving 150 horses to remount" OHC 24 May 1691. There can be little doubt that here the chevalier was mixed up with a relative that was baron. In 1691 the Fornaux dragoon regiment was in the alliance OOB Bataille, wie solche unter Ihr. König. Maystt. König Wilhelm von Engelland, wieder die Frantzosen in Braband bei Didenhofen, 1691, gestanden, probably an OOB of the alliance near Thionville, with two squadrons. In June 1691 the Fourneau dragoon regiment was in the alliance OOB Sterckte van de Armee soo als de gecampeert geweest is to Oprebayx den juni 1691, an OOB of the alliance near Oprebayx, with one squadron.
The existence of the Fourneau dragoons explains that in June 1692 there is a Bettancourt unit in the alliance army near Mallet and that on 24 July 1692 there is a Bettancourt cavalry and a Fourneau dragons in the OOB. On 27 October 1692 the dragoon regiment of the Ridder de Fourneau arrived in Brussel OHC 1 Nov 1692. In 1693 a 'Fourna' unit of two squadrons is in the Alliance OOB near the Abbey of Park, together with 2 Squadrons of Bertencourt OHC 9 July 1693 and 8b.
Up till now all this does not contradict the regimental history. All it says, is that their was also a Dragoon regiment de Fourneau, and perhaps an independent company of the same name. It is very well possible that in 1693 Ignace Fourneau went from his dragoon regiment to the Bettancourt Cavalry regiment. However, in 1694 the Fourneau Dragoons are still mentioned in the OOB together with the Bettancourt, so there might be some doubt about the dates.
4.3 Regiment of Ignace de Fourneau
In 1694 a Fourneaux unit is in the Order of Battle of the Alliance Army in Brabant, fielding a squadron with another company.. In July 1694 we have a literal 'Terce van Furnau' with a secure date in the second line in the camp of Mont Saint André Tweede vervolg van saken van staat en oorlog. The Europische Mercurius p. 54 adds that it fielded one squadron together with Moncadi's company.
In July 1696 the Fourneau regiment is mentioned as fielding one squadron together with the Ribocourt regiment9. On 30 May 1697 there is a 'Fourno' unit in the Alliance OOB near Lombeek
The cavalry regiment of the chevalier de Fourneaux is specifically mentioned in 1701 with 2 squadrons 170110. In January 1702 the 'Fournau' regiment was rumored to move from Mons to Catalunia AC 26 Jan 1702. Indeed the regiment on thet Chevalier de Fourneau moved from Mons to Luxembourg OLC 30 Jan 1702. In September 1702 the regiment was mentioned as going with the expedition to Bonn under Tallard11. On 17 June 1703 the De Fourneaux was with the main army of Villeroy and Boufflers12.
5 De Glymes
5.1 Adrien François or Adrien-Charles de Glymes?
Don Adrien François de Glimes succeeded to the regiment in 170313. From a letter we know that this was not a confusion with De Glimes who was chevalier de Berghes. The 17 june 1703 situation is however quite complete and in it there is no Bergues or Glimes regiment present, while the Fourneau is and this does not point to the Chevalier de Berghes succeeding to this regiment under a different name. It would also need the double supposition that our secondary source is wrong and that the writer of the 17 June 1703 situation did pick up a supposed resignation of the Chevalier de Bergues on his own regiment, but did not pick up his appointment to the Fourneau. In my opinion this is not sensible and one should rather look for Don Adrien François de Glimes mentioned by Chevigni.
Our Adrien François de Glimes is also mentioned somewhere as "Glimes de Brabante", and therefore we'll look in that direction. Warnier de Glymes de Brabant Seigneur de La Falize was made Comte de Glymes-Brabant in 1643. Warnier successively married Marie Isabelle de Nassau-Corroy, Claudia d'Enghien dite d'Havrech and Angélique de Hylle. With Marie Isabelle Warnier had: Gilles Alexis de Glymes Comte de Glymes de Brabant (16 April 1640-1707), Marie Anne Isabelle de Glymes and three children that joined the church. Gilles Alexis married Marie Agnès de Campenne, and had children: Ignace François de Glymes seigneur de La Falize (29 March 1677-1755 ), who married Marie-Françoise d'Anneux de Warigny, and had children: Marie Philippe de Glymes (1724-1799); Honoré comte de Glymes (1725-1804); Jean Alexis de Glymes (how joined the church); and an unknown de Glymes.
Ignace François de Glymes became a Lieutenant-General for Felipe V, Lt-Col of the Gardes Wallons, and captain-General of the two Castiles. But, there is little reason to suppose he was our colonel, so the first branch of Glymes-Brabant does not help at all. Ignace had these brothers that did not enlist in the clergy: Warnier Maximilian François de Glimes died aged 20 (i.e. before 1700); Joseph Alexis de Glimes Captain in the Gardes Wallons (died in Catalunia 1714) and François Henri de Glimes Seigneur de Bimelet ensign in the regiment of the Marquis de Deynze. So in spite having a famous Glymes-Brabant we've not found our colonel. I even have a feeling that the whole 'Count of Glymes-Brabant' idea is a later invention14. Goethals (cf. below) has the branch of Warnier listed as Glymes Falize.
So we go back to Warnier de Glymes de Brabant. According to Goethals, from his second marriage with Claudia d'Enghien dite d'Havrech, he had: Adrien-Charles de Glymes de Brabant, seigneur de Saint Martin, admitted to the nobility of Namur on 8 November 1680. He is specifically mentioned as having been a cavalry colonel for Felipe V. Adrien-Charles married Catherine de Cotereau, daughter of Guillaume de Cotereau marquis d'Assche. From which marriage: another Adrien-Charles de Glymes de Brabant, Seigneur de Saint-Martin, admitted to the nobility of Namur on 11 March 1697. Warnier and Claudia also had Pierre-Ignace de Glymes (b. 21 Nov. 1659) Lt-Colonel in the service of Emperor Leopold I.
So to sum this up. The next colonel was Adrien-Charles de Glymes seigneur de Saint-Martin. But was he called Adrien-Charles, or were the regimental records right? Astonishingly, the regimental records are right: From a later process, we have: Procès de Catherine de Cotereau, douairière d'Adrien-François de Glymes puis épouse de Frédéric-Arnould Westphaelen, puis son donataire Charles-Louis de Taye, contre ses frères le marquis d'Assche Archive Famille de Cotereau.
5.2 Regiment de Glymes
The 'Glime' regiment then appears in a 13 October 1703 table15. On 29 Februari 1704 the Glymes regiment was in Louvain and ordered to the front. On 26 March 1704 the Glimes was ordered to assist in re-establishing the lines near Wasseige. On 12 May 1705 the Glimes cavalry was in the main force under Villeroy16.
6 Regiment de Corral
In 1706 Don Lorenzo del Corral (Laurent de Correl) succeeded to this regiment17. On 24 July 1709 the 'Coralles' regiment was in camp at Denain with 2 squadrons 18.He brought the regiment to Spain. Don Lorenzo del Corral passed away in 1716 and was succeeded by Domenico de Acquaviva y Aragón, Duque de Atri.
The Belgian national archive has a description of the Fourneau family and its holdings. The Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas, et du comté de Bourgogne by De Vegiano was used to add some details. Note that
The genealogy of the Glymes or Glymes de la Falize can be found in the Dictionnaire généalogique et héraldique des familles nobles du Royaume de Belgique by Goethals. Page 485 of the pdf version. Note that Goethals made a mistake in the name.
For further history of the regiment Regimiento de Caballería Farnesio
|1) SAMANIEGO has the creation of this cavalry regiment by the Prince of Hessen Homburg on 7 March 1649.|
|2) SAMANIEGO has the Marquis de Conflans succeeding the Prince of Hessen Homburg on 25 June1653.|
|3) SAMANIEGO has the Comte de Trautmansdorf succeeding De Conflans on 15 December 1667.|
|4) SAMANIEGO has the Baron de Quincy succeeding Trautmansdorf on 17 March 1669.|
|5) SAMANIEGO has the Vizconde d'Agrigny succeeding de Quincy on 23 August 1675.|
|6) SAMANIEGO has Señor de Bettancour succeeding d'Agrigny on 16 May 1676.|
|6b) For the Fourneau Family I used the description mentioned under the sources as base, and added some dates from Nobiliaire des Pays-Bas.|
|7) Supplement Généalogique, historique page 155 specifically mentions Henri Théodore as colonel of cavalry.|
|8) SAMANIEGO has Don Ignace de Fourneau succeeding Bettancour on 25 August 1693.|
|8b) Hollandse Mercurius June 1693 for OOB near Park Abbey.|
|9) Europische Mercurius for July 1696, Order van Bataille des legers gecommandeerd door zyne Britannische Majesteit, en den Keurvorst van Beyeren, leggende te Corbais. has the 'Fourneau' fielding one squdron together with the 'Ribocourt'.|
|10) Pelet Tome 1 page 462, Etat des régiments de cavalerie et de dragons espagnols. On page 545 the Spanish 'Fourneau' regiment is mentioned as being in upper Cologne. Later on the 'de Fourneau' regiment is mentioned on page 555 as being in the electorat of Cologne.|
|11) Pelet Tome 2 page 580, Etat des troupes detachées aux ordres de M. de Tallard le 17 Septembre 1702 mentions the Fourneau.|
|12) Pelet Tome 3 page 757 Etat des troupes de Campagne et de Garnison, depuis la mer jusqu'a Luxembourg. 17 Juin 1703 has the Fourneaux with 2 squdrons.|
|13) SAMANIEGO has 'Don Adrien François de Glimes de Brabante' succeeding Fourneau on 19 May 1703.|
|14) The Histoire de la Paroisse de Rhisnes notes that it's very strange that this title is not on the tomb of Warnier de Glymes.|
|15) Pelet Tome 3 page 777 Etat des troupes qui sont sous Namur, 13 Octobre 1703 has the Glime regiment with 2 sqaudrons.|
|16) Pelet Tome 5 page 564 Ordre de bataille de l'armée de Flandre .. le 12 May 1705 has the Glimes regiment with 2 sqaudrons.|
|17) SAMANIEGO has Lorenzo del Corral succeeding on 19 November 1706|
|18) Pelet Tome 9 page 320 Etat de la Cavalerie et des lieux qu'elle occupe mentions the Coral.|