Hanover infantry regiments on 1 January 1703

The Hanover Infantry order of battle on 1 January 1703.

The Hannover regiments

The Hannover regiments are those that belonged first to Ernst August and then to George Ludwig as Duke of Hannover. The rank of the regiments had been determined in the 'Reglement' of 24 June 16831. The codes like 1A, 2B and so are a system of a later date to have one system to identify Hannover as well as Celle regiments and do not signify rank. Regiments later designated as 7A and 3B have been added to this ranking.

HG Guards GR, Sommerfeldt

This regiment had two ancestors. The main one in size came from Osnabrück. When Ernst August came into possession of the Bishopric of Osnabrück in 1662 he formed a battalion out of three companies he got from the Duke of Wolffenbüttel. In 1677 these Osnabrück troops had grown to 4 regiments which fought in Brabant. One of these was the Leib-regiment or guards, under Colonel von Uffeln. In 1678 Hermann Philipp von Ohr became colonel of this regiment. In 1685 the regiment was rented out to Venice and went to Greece, four companies stayed in Hanover. At the end of 1687 it returned to Germany and arrived there in May 1688.

In 1648 there were two 'Schloss' companies. One in Hannover, and one in Calenberg. In 1680 Von Rose was colonel. In 1685 the two companies of the 'Leibgarde zu Fuss' remained in Hannover. In 1690 the Graf von Königsmark had the senior company and Major des Chouppes the other.

In 1690 both the 2 Hanoverian Guard companies and the regiment of Major-Genaral von Ohr regiment were in camp at Dendermonde. While there they were united into one Guard Regiment together with 4 other companies. The new Guard regiment under Von Ohr counted two battalions and 16 companies. It had Oberst von Gohr as second colonel. The first battalion was commanded by Lieutenant-colonel von Schlägel, the second by Lt-Colonel Dieden. In March 1694 lieutenant-colonel von Schlägel got the rank of colonel. Major-General von Ohr became a General-lieutenant and after the death of Von Königsmark in the night of 1/2 July 1694 he got his dragoon regiment. As Colonel of the Guards he was succeeded by Major-general von Sommerfeld.

H1 Regiment 6A, Colonel von Weyhe

In 1648 this was the red regiment. It had four companies in: Hameln; Göttingen; Northeim and Münden. In 1665 Von Görtz was colonel. In 1671 the new General-lieutenant Von Bodewitz became colonel of this regiment. After the 1679 reduction it consisted of 6 companies commanded by Colonel von Bodewilz. In 1685 the regiment was rented out to Venice and went to Greece. Four companies stayed behind. At the end of 1687 it returned to Germany and arrived there in May 1688. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. On 16 July 1696 Von Bodewilz died as General-Feldmarschall in Hamburg. He was succeeded by Von Weyhe. In 1703 Brunck became colonel of this regiment. In 1706 Brunck was killed at Ramillies. He was succeeded by Von Stallmeister.

H2 Regiment 11B, Amstenrath

In 1648 this was the blue regiment. In 1665 Oberst von Müchelen was its colonel. In 1675 the Count of Lippe-Detmold became colonel, but he quitted early in 1676. He was succeeded by Count von Flemming. After the 1679 reduction it consisted of 6 companies under Von Flemming. In 1682 Von Flemming went to Sachsen and was replaced by Colonel Du Mont. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary, four companies staying back in Hannover. At the end of 1685 or beginning of 1686 it returned to Hanover. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. In 1692 Du Mont was colonel and Von Amstenradt lieutenant-colonel. In March 1694 Von Amstenradt got the rank of colonel, but not the regiment. In 1697 General-Feldzeugmeister Du Mont died and was succeeded by Amstenradt. In 1704 Von Tecklenburg succeeded to this regiment.

H3 Regiment 8B, Von Gohr

In 1670 a new regiment was founded with troops that returned from Crete. At first it was called the grey, and in 1675 the green regiment. In 1675 Von Wiedemann was colonel. After the 1679 reductions it consisted of 6 companies under Wiedemann. In 1685 the regiment stayed behind in Hanover with 8 companies, but had shed 4 companies for the first new Prinz Maximilian Wilhelm regiment. In 1687 Wiedemann died and Von Bremer became colonel. It seems that two companies of this regiment then merged with the regiment of the deceased Raugraf and for historians the 'new' regiment continued as if the Raugraf regiment had not existed. At least that's what it seems because in 1689 5 company officers can be traced back to the Raugraf regiment, and none to the old grey. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. After the 1693 Battle of Neerwinden Von Gohr became colonel. In 1709 van Gohr was killed at Malplaquet. He was succeeded by Boldewin

H4 Regiment 5A, St. Pol des Estangs

In 1648 this was the yellow regiment. In 1665 Von Õffener was colonel of its 4 companies. In 1675 the Prince of Modena was said to have founded a regiment. Later his regiment overwhelmingly contained the names of the companies which had been in the yellow regiment. One can therefore probably reason it to have been the old yellow regiment. The Prince of Modena founding a regiment in 1675 however complies with the ranking ordered by Ernst August in 1683. Therefore this was a new regiment only in a technical sense. The Prince of Modena died in 1679. He was succeeded by Von Bernholz. After the 1679 reduction it consisted of 6 companies commanded by Von Bernholz. In 1684 Du Marteaux was colonel. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary. Four companies stayed behind in Hanover. At the end of 1685 or beginning of 1686 it returned to Hanover. In 1688 St. Pol des Estangs became colonel. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. In 1706 St. Pol was mortally wounded at Ramillies. He was succeeded by Starcke, who died in 1708. He was succeeded by De Lueur.

H5 Regiment 9B, Von Hülsen

In 1665 Ernst August of Hanover and Georg Wilhelm von Celle concluded a treaty with the United Provinces. On that account Ernst August in his capacity of Bishop of Osnabrück, formed this regiment of 12 companies under Colonel Berkel. In 1675 Berkel died in the siege of Trier. He was replaced by Von Hülsen. In 1676 Von Sommerfeldt was lieutenant-colonel. It's likely that this 'Hülsen' regiment was the predecessor of this regiment. In 1676 this regiment appeared as the Osnabrück regiment Von Ohr. Probably in 1678 Von Siegelberg became colonel. In 1679 it had six companies. In 1683 the Siegelberg was still considerd an Osnabrück regiment. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary, four companies stayed back in Hanover. At the end of 1685 or beginning of 1686 it returned to Hanover. In 1689 Siegelberg died in the siege of Mainz. He was succeeded first by Von Schotte de Weber, and soon after by the Graf von Königsmark. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. In 1694 Graf von Löwenhaupt became colonel. He left the same year and was succeeded by Hülsen von Treuenfels. Hülsen had previously commanded the 'Gordon' regiment, which would be dismissed after the war. In 1705 Von Coseritz became colonel of this regiment.

H6 Regiment 10A, Schlägel

This was founded as the white regiment in 1673. In 1675 it was commanded by Colonel Bolalto. In 1676 it was led by Oberst von Alten. In 1679 the regiment was dismissed and joined the service of Celle. In 1680 its companies returned to the service of Hanover and formed a new regiment under Oberst von Röbbig. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary, four companies stayed in Hannover. In Hungary it was commanded by Sommerfeldt, and was therefore often designated with his name. At the end of 1685 or beginnin of 1686 it returned to Hanover. In 1686 Von Röbbig died and was succeeded by Von Sommerfeldt, who would become Generalmajor (Major-general) in 1690. In 1690 it joined the campaign in Brabant. In 1692 the regiment went to Hungary and consisted of two batallions. This second battalion was lost again in 1694. That same year Sommerfeld became colonel of the guards and was replaced by Graf von Wittgenstein. In August 1699 Wittgenstein died. In 1700 he was replaced by Von Schlägel. In 1703 he was succeeded by Clinckaufström.

H7 Regiment 7A, Herleville

In 1685 a first regiment had been founded named for the third son of Ernst August, Prinz Maximilian Wilhelm (1666-1726), but it had been disbanded in Greece. In 1686 a new regiment of 8 companies in two battalions was founded for the prince and named after him. It was then shipped to Venice. The prince was colonel and commander was Oberstlieutenant Bercken. This regiment stayed one year longer in Greece and only arrive back in Germany in April 1689. In 1688 a new regiment had been formed under Colonel d'Herleville and when the Prince Maximilian Wilhelm returned both were united under Herleville as colonel. In 1692 the regiment went to Hungary. In 1705 Von Belling replaced d'Herleville.

H8 Hanover 3B, Von Starcke

In 1704 this regiment was founded. It got Von Starcke as first commander. In 1706 he moved to become colonel of St. Pol's regiment. He was succeeded by De Luer. In turn De Luer succeeded Starcke in his new regiment, and in this regiment he was succceeded by Diepenbroick. Diepenbroick went to Bernstorff's and was succeeded by St. Denys Lescour and in 1711 by Niemeyer.

The Celle regiments

The Celle regiments were those of Georg Wilhelm von Celle. On his death on 28 August 1705 they were combined with the Hannover units.

C1 Regiment 1A, De Carles

In 1665 this regiment was commanded by Graf Josias von Waldeck. In 1668 the regiment went to fight for Venice on Crete. After its return in 1670 it was commanded by Colonel von Ende. In 1674 it went to fight on the Upper Rhine in the combined Celle-Wolffenbüttel army under the Duke of Holstein-Plön. In 1683 Von Nettelhorst became colonel. In 1685 the regiment went to fight the Turks in Hungary. In 1692 Major-General von Nettelhorst died and his regiment was split in two. Oberst du Four-Bibrac became this, the first battalion or regiment. In 1692 Bibrac died in the Battle of Steenkerque and was succeeded by Brigadier de Carles. In 1706 Von Hirsfeld became colonel.

C2 Regiment 1B, Von Bernstorff

On account of the death of Von Nettelhorst his regiment 1A was split in two. Oberst von Dalberg became the second battalion, which formed this regiment. In 1693 he was replaced by Von Bernstorff. He was mortally wounded at Oudenaarde, and succeeded by Diepenbroick in 1709. In 1714 Lucius became colonel.

C3 Regiment 2A&7B, De Luc, 2 battalions

Oberst von Rasfeldt was colonel of this regiment in 1665. In 1668 the regiment went to fight for Venice on Crete. On its return Rasfeldt was still colonel. In 1671 Von Joquet became colonel. In 1674 it went to fight on the Upper Rhine. In 1675 Von Malortie became colonel of this regiment. After his death he was replaced by Anton Simon de Boisdavid in 1684. In 1685 it went to Hungary. In 1693 Boisdavid got a cavalry regiment and was replaced by De Luc. De Luc died in 1707, and then his regiment was split in number 2A under Melville, and 7B under Dodenberg. Von Campe would succeed to Dodnberg in 1711.

C4 Regiment 3A, De La Motte

In 1665 this regiment, which included the troops that would later become 4B was commanded by Oberst Flüte. In 1668 the regiment was commanded by Oberst von Mollesson and went to fight for Venice on Crete. On its return in 1670 Mollesson was still colonel. In 1674 it went to fight on the Upper Rhine. In the 1676 siege of Stade von Mollesson was killed. He was replaced by Colonel Jäger, who was killed before Stettin in 1677 and succeeded by Oberst von Carmaillon. On account of Boisdavid getting regiment 2A Carmaillon quitted and went to Denmark. He was replaced by De la Motte. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary. In 1702 De la Motte died and his regiment was split. This, the first battalion, became an independent regiment under Colonel von Gauvain.

C5 Regiment 4B, Du Breuil

On account of the death of de La Motte in 1702, his regiment was split. This, the second battalion, became an independent regiment under Oberst du Breuil.

C6 Regiment 5B&6B, von Rantzau, 2 battalions

In 1671 this regiment was formed from the so-called ausschus companies as a 2 battalion regiment of 10 companies. Von Friesen became the first colonel. In 1673 Melleville became colonel of this regiment. In 1674 it went to fight on the Upper Rhine. It was then still designated as an 'ohnmondirtes' militia regiment of only 5 companies. That same campaign 5 extra companies were brought to complete it. In 1683 Von Mellin became colonel. In 1685 he was relaced by Oberst von Linstow. In 1685 the regiment went to Hungary. In 1691 Linstow died and was replaced by Von Rantzow (a.k.a. Rantzau)

C7 Regiment 8A, Tozin

In 1692 a new regiment was formed to join the war against the Turks in Hungary. De la Motte became colonel and Tozin major. On its return to Celle it was reduced to a 5-company battalion under Lieutenant-colonel Tozin. In 1704 Tozin was killed at the Schellberg. He was replaced by Oberst von Reck.

C8 Regiment 11A, Mecklenburg-Strelitz

In 1702 the Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz founded a battalion and became its colonel. He died in 1708 and was replaced by Knöbel.

Sources for the Hanover Infantry Regiments

As source for this I primarily used Geschichte der Königlich-Hannoverschen Armee by General-Lieutenant von Sichart, Hannover 1866. The other volumes of this work can be downloaded at the Internet Archive.

Notes

1) Geschichte der Königlich-Hannoverschen Armee v.1 page 177 by Sichart.