The Anjou regiment, 2 battalions
Origins of the regiment d'Anjou
According to tradition this regiment was founded in 1604 by a Lorraine gentleman called De Némond. Certain facts then put the final date of the creation of this regiment to 17 Januari 1625. With regard to the anterior history of the regiment one can supposes that it was first hired by the King of France in 1610 and later traveled to Guyenne to be commanded by Jacques Nompar de Caumont, Duc de la Force. It is probable that the regiment then fought some time for the States General. The first positive mention of the regiment is of 1630, when it crossed the Alps under the Duc de la Force. In March 1631 the colonel was succeeded by his son, François Nompar de Caumont-La Force, Marquis de Castelmoron.
The Rauzan regiment on Crete and becomes the Anjou regiment
In 1665 the regiment became property of Louis de Durfort Comte de Rauzan. In 1669 the Rauzan regiment was sent to assist the Venetians on Crete. In June it was practically destroyed in battle and Rauzan was killed. In September 1669 the regiment returned to France. On 20 January 1670 it was then fused with a regiment that had been created for Philippe Duc d'Anjou on 19 December 1669. Philippe Duc d'Anjou was the second son of Louis XIV and so the regiment at first had only a Lietenant-colonel to command it. This was François de Raveillon, appointed on 20 January 1670. In 1670 the Regiment fought in Lorraine under Créqui.
The Anjou regiment in the Franco-Dutch war
In 1671 the young Duke of Anjou died and the regiment was then named for the province of Anjou. On 24 August 1671 Bernard de la Guiche Comte de Saint-Geran was appointed as colonel. At the start of the Franco-Dutch war in 1672 the regiment was in the sieges of Orsoy, Reinberg and Doesburg. In 1673 the regiment participated in the Siege of Maastricht. After that the Anjou regiment went to Germany and wintered in Burgundy. In 1674 the Anjou participated in the conquest of Franche-Comté. At the siege of Besançon its colonel was severly wounded. In October the Anjou distinguished itself in the Battle of Enzheim. It ended that campaign in the January 1675 battle of Muhlhausen. In the 1675 campaign the Anjou participated in the sieges of Liège, Dinant, Huy and Limbourg. In 1676 it was at Landrecies, Condé, Bouchain and Aire. 1677 started with the siege of Valenciennes, the Siege of Saint Omer and the Battle of Cassel. After that it went to Germany and participated in the Siege of Freiburg. In 1678 the Anjou regiment again started in Flanders, where it was in the Sieges of Gent and Ieper and in the Battle of Saint Denis. Later that year it went to Germany and participated in the Sieges of Kehl and Castle Lichtemberg. It then wintered in the Marck and on 26 June 1679 it fought at Minden. On 25 April François Marie Comte d'Hautefort was appointed as colonel. In 1684 the Anjou regiment participated in the Siege of Luxembourg.
The Anjou regiment in the Nine Years War
At the start of the Nine Years War the Anjou regiment went to the German front. In 1688 it participated in the conquest of Philippsbourg, Mannheim and Frankenthal. In 1689 it participated in the conquest of the Pfalz and wintered in Mainz, where it was besieged. In 1692 the Anjou started on the Moselle and later participated in the Siege of Namur. It was then in the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693 the regiment was in the siege of Huy and the Battle of Neerwinden.
In 1694 the regiment was on the Rhine. In 1695 it was in the expedition that bombarded Brussel. In 1696 the regiment was on the Meuse under Boufflers. On 8 January 1697 Jean Baptiste Louis Andrault Marquis de Maulevrier-Langeron was appointed as colonel. In 1697 it was in the Siege of Ath. In 1698 the Anjou regiment was in the camp of Coudun near Compiègne, which was to serve the instruction of the Duke of Burgundy.
The regiment d'Anjou in the War of the Spanish Succession
The regiment d'Anjou started the War of the Spanish Succession on the Rhine, but was soon diverted to Italy. Here it arrived precisely in time for the Battle of Chiari, where it fought on the extreme left flank. In 1702 the regiment d'Anjou started with the Surprise of Cremona. It was then in the Battle of Santa Vittoria and the Battle of Luzzara. In 1703 the Anjou was in the expedition to Tyrol and wintered in Montferrato. In 1704 the regiment participated in the sieges of Vercelli and Ivrea and started in the Siege of Verrua, that would last till April 1705.
The Anjou regiment then returned to the main force. It then fought at Castiglione and in the August 1705 battle of Cassano. In October it was in combat at Gumbetto and later that year it participated in the conquest of Soncino and Montmélian till 11 December. The first battalion then wintered at Valose and the second in Borghetto. On 19 April 1706 the Anjou fought in the Battle of Calcinato. It then fought at Castiglione, and finally in the Battle of Turin. The Anjou regiment was thereafter reduced to 713 men and retired to the Provence.
In 1707 the Anjou participated in the operations that lifted the Siege of Toulon. Thereafter it was employed in guarding the passes into France and participated only in the 1708 conquest of Césanne. On 6 June 1710 Philippe Aymard de Clermont Comte de Tonnere was appointed as colonel. In 1714 the regiment went to Rousillion in order to participate in the Siege of Barcelona. After the War of the Spanish Succession the regiment de Noë was incorporated into the Anjou regiment. On 10 September 1753 the regiment was renamed to regiment d'Aquitaine.
Flag of the regiment d'Anjou
|1) Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française volume IV, page 371 for most of this article about the Anjou regiment.|